Needs occur when a perceived discrepancy exists between an actual and a desired state of being
Note that there are many theories of motivation:
A model of motivation might look like:
WHAT PROSPECTIVE BUYERS SAY
Buyers usually have multiple motives for particular behaviors. These can be a combination of:
Note: different motives can lead to the same behavior; observing behavior is not sufficient to determine motives.
What are the thoughts of John's friend?
How might a salesperson discover these motives? What features should a salesperson emphasize?
WHY PEOPLE DON'T BUY WHAT
hypothesizes that within every human being there exists a hierarchy of five needs:
Maslow's and some other theories posit that some needs must be met before others can act as motivators. That is, we can expect people in different situations to be motivated in different ways and toward different goals depending on what other needs have previously been met.
According to Maslow's idea, a person will feel compelled to reach &auot;lower order" needs before being motivated to reach " higher order needs." For example, a person supposedly will want to meet physiological (e.g., food) and safety needs before being motivated toward self-actualization needs (e.g., obtaining a college degree). Many examples can be found that are at odds with this ordering, however. Consider college professors who spend many years of their lives in doctoral programs studying butterflies or music history, all the while driving unsafe old cars and often going without food because they cannot afford it.
Although the ordering of any particular set of needs can always be disputed, the idea that motivation in any given person might be associated with a hierarchy does make sense. In the above example, for instance, the graduate student held a personal set of priorities that ranked school work above basic physiological and safety needs. A life insurance agemt might believe that this thirty year old graduate student with two small children at home very much needs life insurance, and the prospect might even agree, but a sale is unlikely until the prospect first meets personal goals that are currently more important in the hierarchy.
McClelland's idea suggests why it is that different people behave in different ways. We all have more or less of a need on some of these factors, making each of us motivated toward different personal goals. People who have a higher nACH would probably make better entrepreneurs or salespeople and be lousy team players. People who have a higher nPOW would probably make better leaders but could be obnoxious "armtwisters" as salespeople. People who have a higher nAFF would probably make the best team players but would lack the "self drive" to be salespeople running their own territory.
The point of this is to note that different people have different personalities.
WHY DOGS JUMP FOR BONES
Argues that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of:
Expectancy theory posits three variables:
According to expectancy theory, a person will expend effort (be motivated) when s/he believes that:
Expressed another way, a person might ask: