PROJECT MANAGEMENT:
LEADERSHIP AND MOTIVATION



LEADERSHIP
the ability to influence, inspire, and direct the actions of a person or group toward the accomplishment of worthwhile, meaningful, and challenging goals

From the above definition, would you expect a good leader to necessarily make a good team player?  Would a good team player necessarily make a good leader?
 



ACTIVITIES USED TO DIRECT THE BEHAVIOR OF OTHER PEOPLE

supervision
refers to the actual overseeing and directing of day-to-day activities of people

coaching
refers to training someone on the job intensively through instruction, demonstration, and practice

counseling
refers to helping someone become a better adjusted person within the environment
 



LEADERSHIP AND POWER

leadership
the ability to influence other people toward the attainment of objectives

power
the ability to influence the behavior of others
 

  • legitimate power

  • comes from a formal management position in an organization and the authority granted to that position
     
     
  • reward power

  • stems from the leader's authority to bestow rewards on other people
     
     
  • coercive power

  • is the opposite of reward power - the authority to punish or recommend punishment
     
     
  • expert power

  • is the result of a leader's special knowledge or skill regarding the tasks performed by followers
     
     
  • referent power

  • comes from the leader's personality characteristics that command subordinate's identification, respect, and administration so that they wish to emulate the leader




SOME MODERATORS OF  A PERSON'S PERFORMANCE

role ambiguity
occurs when there is uncertainty about what the organization expects, how the job is supposed to be done, and how one is perceived by the manager

role conflict
occurs when conflicting, inconsistent, or incompatible job demands exist from two or more people
 



MOTIVATING OTHER PEOPLE

motivation
an activated state within a person that leads to goal-directed behavior

motive:
a construct representing an unobservable force that stimulates and compels a behavioral response and provides specific direction to that response

Needs occur when a perceived discrepancy exists between an actual and a desired state of being

Note that there are many theories of motivation:

  • Don't look at these as "right" or "wrong"; they are just theories.
  • None are validated, but seem intuitively logical.

A model of motivation might look like:

unsatisfied need===>
. . . . . . . . . .tension===>
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . drives===>
. . . . . . . . . . . . search behavior===>
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . satisfied need===>
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . reduction of tension 



VROOM'S EXPECTANCY THEORY

Argues that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of:

  • an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome
  • the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual

Expectancy theory posits three variables:

  • attractiveness of the reward:

  • the importance that the individual places on the potential outcome
  • performance-reward linkage:

  • the degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome
  • effort-performance linkage:

  • the probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance

According to expectancy theory, a person will expend effort (be motivated) when s/he believes that:

  • the effort will result in favorable performance
  • favorable performance will result in a desirable reward
  • the reward will satisfy an important need
  • the desire to satisfy that need is strong enough to make the effort worthwhile
Expressed another way, a person might ask:
  • What's in it for me?
  • How hard will I have to work to get what's in it for me?
  • What are my real chances of getting that reward if I do what you (or they) want?