segment of a culture which shares distinguishing patterns of
behavior and values different from the overall culture
Subcultures can be identified on the basis of:
- geographic location
- social class
- - etc.
baby boomers: people in the U.S. born between 1946
mature market: increasing in size in the U.S.
Note that many characteristics of subculture can be measured
How would you estimate the number of potential consumers
for a new type of diaper?
the study of human populations on the basis of age, gender,
geographic location, etc.
Using demographics, we are interested in estimating:
- market size - how many potential consumers?
- market composition - who buys and who doesn't?
- market location - where are the buyers?
- market trends - what will the future bring?
a listing of the characteristics of the audience for a particular
television show, magazine, or other medium
CAUSES OF POPULATION GROWTH
- Birth rate: fertility; number of births
- Death rate: mortality; number of deaths
- Net immigration: the number of people moving into
or out of a country
What was the single most significant factor contributing to U.S.
population growth prior to the baby boom era?
What are some public policy changes in different countries that
affect these factors?
American baby boom
1946-1964; high birth rate
American baby bust
1965-1980; low birth rate. A.k.a. "generation X".
- "Because of the group's relatively small size, employers must
compete for them in the job market." Do you agree or disagree
with the claim that is made by several baby-boomer textbook writers?
SOCIAL CLASS SYSTEM
a hierarchical division of society into relatively distinct
and homogeneous groups with respect to status, wealth, education,
possessions, and values
distinguished in terms of esteem and prestige
Most frequently used measures:
These make up the U.S. Bureau of Census Index of Socioeconomic
The average of these scores results in an index with four classifications:
- upper class
- upper-middle class
- lower-middle class
- lower class
PROBLEMS IN THE USE OF SOCIAL CLASS
- problem of definition
- choice-behavior fallacy
- husband-only fallacy
- present social class fallacy
- effect of aspirations and disdain
how consistent an individual is on various status dimensions
- In the U.S.: which job has more prestige, a plumber or a professor?
- Which has higher education? Education?
- Which pays a higher "occupational privilege" tax in Pennsylvania?