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SUBCULTURAL INFLUENCES

SUBCULTURE
segment of a culture which shares distinguishing patterns of behavior and values different from the overall culture

Subcultures can be identified on the basis of:

  • race
  • nationality
  • religion
  • age
  • geographic location
  • gender
  • social class
  • - etc.

e.g.,
baby boomers: people in the U.S. born between 1946 and 1964
mature market: increasing in size in the U.S.

Note that many characteristics of subculture can be measured with demographics.


DEMOGRAPHICS

How would you estimate the number of potential consumers for a new type of diaper?

demographics
the study of human populations on the basis of age, gender, geographic location, etc.

Using demographics, we are interested in estimating:

  • market size - how many potential consumers?

  • market composition - who buys and who doesn't?

  • market location - where are the buyers?

  • market trends - what will the future bring?

Demographic Profile
a listing of the characteristics of the audience for a particular television show, magazine, or other medium


CAUSES OF POPULATION GROWTH

  • Birth rate: fertility; number of births

  • Death rate: mortality; number of deaths

  • Net immigration: the number of people moving into or out of a country

What was the single most significant factor contributing to U.S. population growth prior to the baby boom era?

What are some public policy changes in different countries that affect these factors?


AGE SUBCULTURES

American baby boom
1946-1964; high birth rate

American baby bust
1965-1980; low birth rate. A.k.a. "generation X".

  • "Because of the group's relatively small size, employers must compete for them in the job market." Do you agree or disagree with the claim that is made by several baby-boomer textbook writers?

Mature consumer
Woopies?


SOCIAL CLASS SYSTEM
a hierarchical division of society into relatively distinct and homogeneous groups with respect to status, wealth, education, possessions, and values

social class
distinguished in terms of esteem and prestige

Most frequently used measures:

  • education
  • occupation
  • income

These make up the U.S. Bureau of Census Index of Socioeconomic Status (SES)

The average of these scores results in an index with four classifications:

  • upper class
  • upper-middle class
  • lower-middle class
  • lower class


PROBLEMS IN THE USE OF SOCIAL CLASS

  • problem of definition
  • choice-behavior fallacy
  • husband-only fallacy
  • present social class fallacy
  • effect of aspirations and disdain


status crystallization
how consistent an individual is on various status dimensions

  • In the U.S.: which job has more prestige, a plumber or a professor?

  • Which has higher education? Education?

  • Which pays a higher "occupational privilege" tax in Pennsylvania?