refers to the learned meanings, values, and behavior patterns that
are shared by a society
includes the knowledge, beliefs, art, law, morals, customs, and
habits acquired by a person as a member of society
- different perceptions of time, poly. vs. monochronic
- different perceptions of the role of women, men
- different perceptions of right vs. wrong, as in "lubrication"
- Culture is comprehensive: it includes almost everything that
influences an individual's thought processes and behaviors
- Culture is acquired or learned: it does not include inherited
responses or predispositions. Values and behaviors are learned
from cultural influences.
- Culture supplies boundaries within which individuals think
- We are seldom aware of cultural influences; we generally
take these influences for granted.
Culture provides loose boundaries for individual behavior.
These boundaries are called norms.
rules that specify or prohibit certain behaviors in specific
situations; expectations of behaviors regardless of position
what is right, good, and important; widely held beliefs that
affirm what is desirable
basic actions such as what ceremonies are held and the roles
played by the sexes
customs that emphasize the moral aspects of behavior
NORMS: Nonverbal Communication
- polychronic vs. monochronic
- lead time
- office size and location
- personal space
- terminal materialism:
acquisition of goods as an end in itself
- instrumental materialism:
acquisition of goods to enable one to do something
- pink vs. blue identifiers
- generally accepted ways of behaving in social situations
SOME CULTURAL VALUE ORIENTATIONS
individual vs. collective
the extent to which a culture values more - the individual or the group
the extent to which the characteristics of one sex are valued
over those of another
the extent to which the members of the society are oriented to
the past, present, or future
the extent to which members of the society are willing to tolerate
ambiguity and unusual behavior
the extent to which the society values action versus reflection
relationship to nature
the extent to which the society lives in harmony with nature or
attempts to dominate nature
PROBLEMS IN TRANSLATION
The following are "urban legends" which, for the
most part, probably have no basis in fact. Nonetheless,
these are repeated here because they help to make an important point.
US: "Body by Fisher"
Japan: "Corpse by Fisher"
US: Chevrolet "Nova" = "Star"
Puerto Rico: "No Va" = "it doesn't go"
U.S.: Pepsi "come alive"
Germany: "come out of the grave"
Asia: "bring your ancestors back from the death"
LESSON: translate back and forth a few times!
If people can't read your English labels and rely on the picture
to indicate what is the contents of a jar, would you attempt to
distribute baby food with the picture of a baby on the jar?