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CONSUMER INFORMATION PROCESSING

CONSUMER INFORMATION PROCESSING
the process through which consumers are

  1. exposed to information
  2. attend to it
  3. comprehend it
  4. place it in memory and
  5. retrieve it for later use.


PERCEPTION
the process through which individuals are

  • exposed to information,
  • attend to the information, and
  • comprehend the information

Exposure:
consumers receive information through their senses

Attention:
consumers allocate processing capacity to a stimulus

Comprehension:
consumers interpret the information to obtain meaning from it


THE EXPOSURE STAGE
a consumer's sensory organs are activated by a stimulus

selective exposure:
consumers can actively choose whether or not to expose themselves to information

  • e.g., zipping and zapping through a video tape (fast forwarding through commercials or turning off the sound during commercials)

sensation:
the stimulation of a person's sensory receptors and the transmission of the sensory information to the brain

Whether or not a stimulus is actually detected depends on its intensity:

absolute threshold:
the lowest level at which a stimulus can be detected 50% of the time.

Why do TV commercials seem louder than the program material?

subliminal perception:
the idea that stimuli presented below the level of conscious awareness might influence behavior and feelings


THE EXPOSURE STAGE

Just Noticeable Difference Threshold (JND)
the minimum amount of difference in the intensity of a stimulus that can be detected 50% of the time

Weber's Law
as the intensity of the stimulus increases, the ability of a person to detect a difference between the two levels of the stimulus decreases


THE EXPOSURE STAGE

Consumer Adaptation:
the amount or level of the stimulus to which the consumer has become accustomed

a reference point to which changes in the level of the stimulus are compared

Butterfly Curve:
at the adaptation level, consumer preference for a stimulus declines because the person has become habituated to the stimulus

preference for a stimulus is greatest at points just higher or lower than the adaptation level

Why are fashions constantly changing?


THE ATTENTION STAGE
the allocation of cognitive capacity to an object or task

Types of Attention

  • voluntary attention:
    consumers actively search out information that has personal relevance

  • selective attention:
    consumers selectively focus attention on relevant information

  • involuntary attention:
    consumer is exposed to something surprising, novel, threatening, or unexpected
    - e.g.:
    • surprise
    • movement
    • unusual sounds
    • size of stimulus
    • contrast effects
    • color


THE COMPREHENSION STAGE
the process through which individuals organize and interpret information

Perceptual Organization
the way people perceive shapes, forms, figures, and lines in their visual world

Gestalt Psychology:
attempts to understand how people perceive patterns in the world


THE COMPREHENSION STAGE

Interpretation processes:
people draw upon their experience, memory and expectations to attach meaning to a stimulus

Expectations:
prior beliefs about what should happen in a given situation can influence the interpretation of information

Semiotics:
how it is that people interpret meaning from signs

  • signs: words, gestures, pictures, products, and logos used to communicate information


CONSUMER INVOLVEMENT
the process through which individuals are influenced by the

  • perceived personal importance and/or
  • interest

evoked by a stimulus

Personal importance increases as perceived risk increases.

As involvement increases, consumers have greater motivation to comprehend and elaborate on information salient to the purchase.

Higher levels of involvement are expected to result in

  • a greater depth of information processing
  • increased arousal
  • more extended decision making

Factors which can influence purchase involvement:

  • situation
  • product
  • personality
  • communication